Investment Agreement in Nigeria: What You Need to Know

In recent years, Nigeria has become an attractive destination for foreign investors due to its vast potential for growth and development. However, to successfully invest in Nigeria, it is essential to understand the investment agreement framework in the country. In this article, we will provide an overview of investment agreements in Nigeria and what investors need to know before investing.

What is an Investment Agreement?

An investment agreement is a legally binding document that outlines the terms and conditions of an investment between two or more parties. The agreement typically covers aspects such as the type of investment, the amount of capital being invested, and the expected profits or returns. Investment agreements also provide a framework for resolving disputes and addressing issues that may arise during the investment period.

Investment Agreements in Nigeria

In Nigeria, investment agreements can take various forms, including Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), Shareholders Agreement, and Joint Venture Agreement. These agreements are essential for foreign investors who want to invest in Nigeria.

MoU: A MoU is a preliminary document that outlines the intent to form a business relationship between two or more parties. It does not create a legally binding agreement but serves as a framework for future negotiations. A MoU is often used when parties are still exploring investment opportunities, or when parties are not ready to commit to a binding legal agreement.

Shareholders Agreement: A shareholders agreement is a legal and binding document that outlines the rights and obligations of shareholders in a company. This agreement typically covers aspects such as dividends, voting rights, and the handling of disputes between shareholders.

Joint Venture Agreement: A Joint Venture Agreement is a legal agreement between two or more parties seeking to invest in a particular project or business. The agreement outlines the objectives of the venture, the responsibilities of each party, and the investment terms. Joint Venture Agreements are often used in Nigeria, particularly in the Oil and Gas sector.

Important Considerations for Foreign Investors

Before investing in Nigeria, foreign investors need to consider several important factors. These include:

1. Regulatory Environment: The regulatory environment in Nigeria can be complex and challenging. It is essential to understand the legal and regulatory requirements for investing in Nigeria, including the procedures for obtaining licenses and permits.

2. Investment Protection: Foreign investors must ensure that their investments are protected in Nigeria. This can be achieved through investment agreements that provide protection against expropriation, discrimination, and other risks.

3. Taxation: Nigeria`s tax system can be complicated, and it is essential to understand the tax laws and regulations before investing. Foreign investors must be aware of their tax obligations in Nigeria and the potential tax incentives available.


Investment agreements are crucial for foreign investors seeking to invest in Nigeria. These agreements provide a framework for protecting foreign investments and resolving disputes. However, foreign investors must understand the regulatory environment, investment protections, and taxation laws before investing in Nigeria. By doing so, investors can ensure they maximize their investments and achieve their desired returns.